The Difference Between .999 & .9999 Silver

A lot of people are a little bemused by the propensity for some CS manufacturing websites who say that they “Only Use .9999 Fine Silver” and how only the higher grade is any good. This is what Jason Hommel (a Silver Bullion dealer) has to say about the difference between .999 and .9999 fine Silver:
“Ah, here’s another little gem for the silver bugs.  There is no discernible difference between .999 silver and .9999 silver.  I finally have several sources that back up my statement.  First, in any melt bucket, all the impurities in the silver will rise to the top, and can be skimmed or blasted off of the top of the molten silver. But the melt bucket does not refine the silver, that’s done through electrolysis. It’s therefore the same process for .999 and .9999 silver.  The difference is only in the label and the marketing, in my expert, well researched opinion.  I have tested .999 silver on an x-ray fluorescence tester, and it reads out at .9999 fine.  I have asked several mints and refiners and industry experts all the same question, and they all say the same thing, they don’t know of any difference between .999 vs. .9999 silver, because of all the same reasons, because it’s all the same process, except for the final stamp at the end of the line.  Maybe .9999 silver is more fraudulent, because they are overselling their product?  Maybe .9999 silver becomes .999 silver if you contaminate it with a thumbprint?  But the melt bucket does not care or distinguish between 999 silver vs. 9999.  I am open to the possibility that I’m wrong, but so far, I have not seen any measurable difference between 999 vs 9999 labelled silver.”
http://silverstockreport.com/2013/silver-market-facts.html
DON’T BOTHER buying .9999 fine Silver for your Anodes. Use .999 fine; it’s perfectly good. There are more impurities in the Distilled Water than the difference between the two grades of metal.

The Prepper Notes

A growing number of people consider that “Prepping” (as Americans put it) is an advisable policy; preparing beforehand for some foreseeable but hopefully-unlikely disaster, so that one’s family can survive that disaster in reasonable shape. Even the British government, not known since WWII for its’ caring attitude to the man in the street, advises us to have two weeks’ worth of food and money in the home.
As it is likely that a Government would be under some pressure to bring back a civilised way of life in a reasonably short time, a family would need to be able to endure a true “Survival Phase” of maybe two weeks or so, but there would then be a phase of a few months, which we might refer to as the “Aftermath Phase” where everyone gets back to their normal state…
…of being kept in the metaphorical dark by TPTB and fed on Panem et Circenses by the government.
Whether this would involve TPTB hoping for a thinning-out of so-called useless eaters, I do not know, but anyone who reads this forum and blog does not come into that category. Everyone has their favorite list of facilities, preparations and contents for their bug-out bag, but while I’m not actually going into any lists here (there’s plenty on the Internet), I would hope that everyone would have a CS-making kit with them for the “Aftermath Phase”, when disease may be an issue.
Waterborne disease is always going to be a problem if the mains water supply is not available. Most flooding events in the UK have also involved the sewerage system lifting the manholes in the road, causing raw sewage to mix with surface water, contaminating all water sources which are not sealed from the environment.
So, you’ve got your battery powered CS generating gear. I am deeply grateful that mine’s a SilverTron:
SilverTron Store
although a CST4 battery-powered CS generator from GoodVitality would do:
GoodVitality CST4 CS-Making Machine
and you could make your own very basic version, from the instructions here:
Kephra’s Articles – CS Production Part II
You will certainly have your pure Silver electrode(s). They will be .999 fine; DON’T bother paying for .9999 fine; and some 9V PP3 batteries. You will have a small quantity of cinnamon powder, a bottle of Vodka (good for trading or fire-lighting as well as making cinnamon tincture), a bottle of Sodium Hydroxide or Sodium Carbonate and a bottle of Karo Corn Syrup (USA/CAN) or Golden Syrup (UK).
Excellent; now all we need is some unpolluted, clean distilled water in a sealed container…
Um; perhaps I could distill my own water. Now where is my mains distiller? I’ll just plug it in…
How about that bottle of dehydrated water that Mr Snake-oil sold me; he said it only needed to be rehydrated with some distilled …
Damn.
All the answers boil down (excuse the pun) to a supply of water clean enough to use for CS-making. I came to this conclusion a while ago, and made sure that I always keep 250 litres of distilled water on hand in my home. It is very expensive bottled water if used for drinking, but I don’t think I would care, if the time came. It will last me and my wife for about four weeks if we had nothing else, and could be used straight out of the sealed plastic bins to make any version of CS. However, suppose we didn’t have this?
Most homes have a water-tank, but this is “contaminated” with chlorine, so although it can be used for drinking-water, it cannot be used for making CS. I can see at least three other sources of reasonably good water in or around my home, that are fairly pure without needing to be distilled, and which are not likely to be badly contaminated. My rainwater butts collect rainwater from my roof, and the dust (and any radio-active particles) settle out in the first water-butt. The overflow goes into the second water-butt, and this would be perfectly good for drinking-water, straight from the water-butt tap. Better, but available in smaller volumes, melted ice from the freezer would puddle in the bottom of the cabinet if the mains failed. Even better still, my dehumidifiers collect water that is almost distilled-quality, condensed from water vapour in the air. (Homes in the USA might consider collecting the distillate from any air-conditioners, allowing any overflow to run away to the drain. This water is made by the same process as a dehumidifier, and would be of an equivalent purity if kept in a covered tank).
Could these be used for making CS? If it is possible, the end-product would be self-sterilising.
I took 350 mls of rainwater and 350 mls of condensate from my dehumidifier. I tested the water samples with a TDS meter and the rainwater came out at 28 uS, the dehumidifier water tested at 8 uS. I thought this would be too high for use as CS feedwater, and was quite disappointed by the dehumidifier sample. As a dehumidifier makes water by condensing water vapour, I had hoped for a better TDS result.
However, I hooked up the CS machine to make sugar-reduced hot CS (perhaps you will allow the use of hot water for the purpose of this experiment). After electrolysing the dehumidifier water for approximately 11 minutes and the rainwater for about 15 minutes at about 10 mA (I let the rainwater overcook a bit), I took a wooden stirrer (from Starbucks) with a faint smear of Golden Syrup on the end, and immersed it into the hot water.
The rainwater was a bit over-cooked, around 30 ppm, but the colour of both samples was perfect, with zero turbidity and crystal clear deep yellow (for the dehumidifier water) and light brown (for the rainwater).
I MUST STRESS that this is an emergency technique for use when distilled or de-ionised water is not available. You should ALWAYS use distilled or de-ionised water when it is obtainable. However, I was pleasantly surprised by the results, which I will use with confidence.
DSCF0366a

Electrode Geometry

This post is to illustrate the effects of different spacing and sizes of electrodes. You will soon get an understanding of the best spacing for your own chosen electrodes, but you should know the principles. All the following “rules” are actually approximations, but you will be able to fine-tune them yourself. This is probably the most important subject to learn once you have mastered the basics.
If you double the size of your electrode, you should be able to double the current. Note that only the side of the anode which faces the cathode should be used to calculate the area. Kephra found that the best results used about 1 ma per square centimetre with the distilled water kept hot, and using a stirrer if possible.
I only use a stirrer if “cooking” cold. I find that the convection currents are adequate to stir the DW, but if you have a stirrer, laboratory or home-made, then use that. More vigorous stirring is better, the idea being to sweep the silver ions away from the anode as fast as possible.
Maximise the anode size, minimise the cathode area. A piece of copper wire, stainless steel or brass is fine, unless the current is set to alternate polarity at intervals.
1 ma per square centimetre of submerged anode area for the suggested current when processing DW hot.
10 ma per square inch of submerged anode area when processing DW hot.
2 or 3 ma per sq inch of anode area when processing cold.
Moving the electrodes closer together increases the amperage (until the set-point of the constant-current circuit is reached).
For a Silver wire anode, 4 inches submerged depth, we suggest no higher current than 3 ma cold and 6 ma hot-processed. 12 gauge wire is 2 mm in diameter.
Remember that the effective area of an anode is that which is facing the cathode (the reverse side has much less effect) and of course, submerged in the DW. Do not allow suspension devices or parts of the holder to touch the DW unless they are made of the same quality of silver as the anode.
If you seem to need a lot of electrolyte and want to use less, increase the size of the electrodes or move them closer together.
If you need to use more electrolyte to prevent cathode plating, raise more of the cathode out of the water, or increase the electrode spacing.
If you are using a circuit with a constant-current limiter, connect a voltmeter across the electrodes and connect an ammeter in series between the positive connector of the PSU and the anode. Once the water is up to the operating temperature, measure the voltage across the electrodes in air.  Submerge the electrode array. Add electrolyte until the voltage starts to drop to about 90 per cent of the original value. This indicates that the constant-current circuit is now operating to control the voltage in order to maintain the current. Note the current. The operating voltage should be as high as reasonably possible, between 20 and 30 volts (at the beginning of the process) is ideal. If possible, maintain the voltage over 10 volts by moving the electrode spacing.
If each drop of Sodium Carbonate makes too big a change in the measured voltage across the electrode array, then dilute the electrolyte and use more drops of a more dilute product.
If you are getting hydrogen and oxygen bubbles coming off the electrodes in any significant quantity, then either the current is too high or stirring is too slow. Increase the speed of the stirrer or use a miniature water pump.
To increase the electrode voltage, reduce the area of the cathode exposed to the water. You can even raise the cathode out of the water so far that the tip of the cathode wire is just touching the water, but ensure that the evaporation of the DW does not leave the cathode out of the water during your production process.
Professional electro-platers use a “dog-bone anode” where the thin edges of the plate are swollen and rounded off, because the electrical field is concentrated at sharp edges. You can see this effect when running with too little electrolyte, as the oxide accumulates on the edges of the strip of Silver. I am unsure whether this would have any significant effect for our application. I personally ignore this effect.

Give your Experiences here

This is the part of the blog for your experiences or difficulties in making CS. You can ask for help, boast about your results, or offer advice and ideas to others.
Just remember that we are all researchers in this field. Neither Kephra or I are doctors, and we don’t/won’t/can’t give any medical advice. We are just putting on record what we have found to work in our own experience, for us. That is why this section is so important, as the dose-rates are essential to the successful use of CS in all its’ forms.

Production of High-ppm CS with Orchestra

As CS is so useful in a USA bug-out bag, otherwise known in Britain as a gentleman’s picnic hamper, I thought I would add some notes for the production of Cinnamon-reduced CS at 100 ppm.
The purpose of such high-ppm CS is NOT for taking a higher amount of Silver in the same dose. It is for the purpose of ease of transport. The resulting product can be diluted with any reasonably clean water to give standard 20 ppm bright-yellow CS, so two half-litres of 100 ppm CS are equivalent to just over a gallon (five litres) of 20 ppm CS, a very useful saving in weight and cost of distilled water.
The process is remarkably similar to production of 20 ppm cinnamon-reduced CS but with each 20 ppm run repeated five times. The set-up is much the same as that on the previous posting about cinnamon-reduced CS, but you will need a few extra items.
First, hire an orchestra. They will need good nerves. Then you will need to hire a Monster. These are available from Pinewood Studios for a reasonable sum, but they insist that the Monster must be accompanied by a wrangler, known in the trade as a Henchman, hired at extra cost. You will need a laboratory with a skylight giving a view of the night sky.
A set of tables giving the phases of the moon is highly desirable, and the weather forecast can be obtained in the UK Met Office on Tel: +441392885680. You will need to pick a night with a violent thunderstorm for your experiment.
Obtain the services of a good roofer, and engage him to attach a stout copper lightning-conductor to the chimney, or if you are fortunate in your choice of home, upon the battlements.
On the chosen night, go out after dark and soundly thrash your Werewolf if he disturbs the local peasants too much. In the event that the peasantry gather with pitchforks and scythes outside the curtilage, an appearance upon the roof of your home, laughing manically, will deter them.
As the storm gathers, set up the CS equipment and adjust the hotplate to heat a measured volume of distilled water. It should be just hot enough to make small bubbles at the bottom of the reaction vessel, but not hot enough for a rolling-boil. Mark the level of the water, as you will need to top up the water during the process. Start the current and add sodium carbonate drop by drop, until the voltage drops a little, perhaps to about 90 per cent of the initial voltage. Add 2mls of cinnamon extract to the reaction vessel for every litre of distilled water. Ensure that the maximum Silver anode is exposed to the water, minimum cathode, and start the timer. This whole process is much simpler if you buy a SilverTron I, but the instructions are for a normal laboratory PSU.
Inform the conductor that he needs to start the orchestra off. Something slow and benign, possibly classical; or maybe a tune from a favourite film of yours. Have him build to a crescendo over the next three hours while the process takes place. Any liquid refreshments should not be coloured red, as it will panic the second violins, who are made of less stern stuff than the brass section. Sandwiches should contain meat that is immediately identifiable, for the same reason. At the height of the storm, as the lightning is melting the copper conductor, then occupy yourself by going out onto the roof again, to ensure you have not lost too many peasants to the Werewolf. Ensure that Hench has strapped the Monster down tightly, and then return to your laboratory for the next part of the process.
Run the first 20 ppm, then stop the current and fire-clean the anode by heating it in a gas flame until the oxide coating goes white (reverts back to metallic Silver). Then top up the reaction vessel with more distilled water and repeat the process run, five times. At the end of the process, the 100 ppm CS will look like motor oil, but if you dilute it 1 part 100 ppm CS to four parts of water (remember it does not need to be distilled water for the purpose of dilution AFTER the end of the process) then you should be back to yellow 20 ppm CS. If the colour looks correct, and there is no significant taste, then you are finished.
Kephra has demonstrated this process with gelatine as an alternative to cinnamon, but the cinnamon tincture is an easy way to start and practice before going on to more advanced methods.

Making Heat-reduced and Sugar-reduced CS

The first improvement over IS was Heat-reduced CS. This makes use of the fact that Silver Oxide will reduce to metallic Silver nanoparticles in the presence of heat and the absence of oxygen. It can be prepared during the actual production run, or post-production by heating the IS until all or most of the IS turns to CS. It is easy to see the process, because the IS turns a golden-yellow when the ions are reduced to AgNP (Silver nanoparticles).
It was then found that monosaccharide sugars – glucose or fructose – in an alkaline solution (higher than pH 7), would achieve the same result using less energy, thus making a cheaper product. Also, sugar ensures that the reduction process is complete and stays complete. The sugars we use are either a solution of glucose or fructose dissolved in distilled water; or alternatively, one drop of inverted sugar syrup (“Golden Syrup” in the UK, “Karo” in the USA) will do the same thing and is easily purchased from a supermarket.
Heat-reduced CS almost always has a slightly metallic taste, indicating that there is some IS left unreduced. Under some conditions, CS-H can oxidise back to a much paler solution, indicating that the CS-H has returned partially to IS. This can be avoided in almost all cases by heating until no further colour change is seen.
Production of Heat or Sugar-reduced Colloidal Silver (CS-H or CS-S)
The basis of production of true CS (AgNP) is the same as production of IS, but one then reduces the ionic content to AgNP with heat or sugar, either during the production run or post-production in a microwave. (I prefer to heat the DW during the run, but either method works). I have copied-and-pasted some of the paragraphs from the previous post, in case some people wish to print out the “recipe” and have it beside them when making the CS.
If this is your first attempt, use a small quantity of DW the first time (say 250 mls), in order to avoid wastage of DW. If you have a laboratory heating plate with magnetic stirrer, this is ideal. However, these stirrers are astoundingly expensive and I have found a single-ring hotplate is quicker to heat the water and can be bought off eBay quite cheaply.
In the absence of a magnetic stirrer, you can stir the water perfectly adequately using the convection currents in the hot DW. Some people use an air-bubbler to stir the water, but I feel this introduces too much oxygen and atmospheric contaminants and evaporates too much DW. I do not use an air-bubbler for any purpose connected with CS production.
Assemble the electrodes in the usual way, over the chosen reaction vessel. Allow time for the hotplate to get up to temperature. You can shorten the time and energy required by pre-heating the DW in a microwave, if the beaker will fit. The temperature at which I run my production is about 80 – 90 degrees C. You do not need a thermometer; the right temperature for hot-water production is when bubbles form at the bottom of the beaker but do not manage to break the upper surface of the water. You may need to top up the DW during a long production run. Tall, relatively narrow cylinders or cafetieres are much more thermally-efficient than a shallow container.
Once the DW is up to temperature, connect the PSU and ensure that the positive lead is connected to the Silver anode. With the voltmeter and ammeter on-line, start the current. We will use the same electrolyte as before, in order to speed up the process and allow us to calculate the ppm of the final product with much greater accuracy. Add Sodium Carbonate drop-by-drop, allowing time for the convection currents to stir the DW and thoroughly mix the electrolyte, until the voltage reduces to about 90 per cent of the initial value. This indicates that your current has come within the control range of the constant-current circuitry of the PSU.
In most cases, if the anode is a silver wire or narrow strip, the current should be around 2-5 mA. 1 toz Silver bullion bars can run at 15 mA. Large Silver anode plates (say, 150 mm long by 30 mm wide) can easily be pushed to 15 mA and I run my very largest anodes at 40 mA. At this time, note the current (mA) and start your timer.
Using the calculations in the previous post, estimate the time required to produce 20 ppm CS. There is no point in attempting to produce uncapped CS at a higher concentration than 20 ppm. Anything over 10 ppm will work effectively, but a final strength between 15 – 20 ppm is desirable. If you wish to make concentrations higher than 20 ppm for ease of storage or transport, then make capped CS. Run the process until the required ppm is made.
You will be able to watch the DW slowly turn yellow as the Silver is reduced to metallic CS AgNP. The process is complete when the run-time indicates that you have made the required ppm of AgNP. At this stage, the heat in the DW will have reduced the majority of IS to AgNP and produced true CS.
To finish making Heat-reduced CS, stop the current and continue to heat the CS-H until no more colour change takes place. You can do this on the hot-plate or if the beaker is small, transfer it to a microwave.
To make sugar-reduced CS, add a drop of “Karo” or “Golden Syrup”. You can make 1 M glucose or fructose and add a few drops, but “Karo” or other inverted-sugar syrups work well. You can add the sugar syrup at the beginning, after the water is heated, and just before you start the current; alternatively, you can add it at the end, while the CS is cooling. Post-production reduction is considered slightly better, as one is not then electrolysing the sugar, but I have found both techniques work very well.
There is one final alternative, which is very energy-efficient, and that is to make IS cold, then boil in a microwave for CS-H, or add a drop of syrup and boil for CS-S. This works, but heating the product during the production run makes for better stirring and the process runs cleaner.
The result should be totally clear, yellow CS containing no visible particles, and the end-product should look like the finest single-malt Scotch whisky (finest Tennessee sippin’ whisky if you’re in the USA). The final colour has also been likened to Johnson’s baby shampoo, (and like the shampoo, CS does not sting even in the eyes). Tasting the product should give no metallic taste, in fact, it should not really taste of anything.
Any large particles of Oxide floating in the water or left at the bottom of the reaction vessel (it looks like black or grey dust) can be removed by filtering through an aquarium air-stone or the CS can be decanted off. If you filter the product, do not use the same tubing and air-stone for filtering IS, or the IS will immediately be reduced to CS.
Other Notes Concerning Colloidal Silver (AgNP).
Sugar-reduced CS is the universal product. It can be used for any purpose for which CS is applicable. The sugar molecules are small enough that they do not “cap” the AgNP in the same way that cinnamon-reduction provides, so CS-H or CS-S may be more suitable for treating wounds or external abrasions. The use of cinnamon-reduced CS for external use is still the subject of research.
Heat-reduced CS (CS-H) is the only version that I would consider for using upon myself intravenously, until more evidence is available. However, we have had a unique and valuable contribution from a forum member which will be the subject of a later post on this aspect of using CS. The possibility of quickly and effectively curing bacterial meningitis (a fast-acting and lethal bacterium) with an IV drip of CS-H is tantalising and theoretically simple.
Until we have more data from up-to-date research, I cannot recommend the use of any CS product for medical use. I am a biologist and chemist but have no medical qualifications. In these pages, I am giving notes as to what I have done and how I have experimented upon myself and other volunteers, in the hope that others may benefit. Anyone who follows these notes should be aware that they are fellow-researchers into one of the most valuable fields of health research in the post-antibiotic era. The use of AgNP for healing has been known (with much more primitive production methods) since the late nineteenth century. These notes are given for research and information purposes only. You should always consult a qualified medical practitioner if you are unwell.